La Tahzan Wa La Khauf

Don't Be Sad My Friends

Hadith About Sport : Islam/boxing as a sports in islam

salam walekum,
i am into ameture boxing since my school days,i just joined it as a sporting activity,for fitness and strength its been almost ten years i am in to this sports, i a have won many state and national championships. some of my friends told me that boxing is haram in islam please expalin how is boxing is a haram in islam when it is just a sport like any other and there r many muslim in ameture and profesnals boxers in this sport.
jazakalla khair

Wa `Alaykum As-Salaam Waramatullah Wabarakatuh!

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah Almighty and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

First of all, we’d like to voice our appreciation for the great confidence you repose in us. May Allah Almighty help us to let our endeavor come up to your expectation, Amen.

As regards your question, we’d like to cite for you the fatwa issued by the European Council for Fatwa and Research. It goes as follows:

"According to a juristic rule in Islam stating “Taking a lawful act as profession is permissible, save what’s made exceptional by a clear proof”, sport is basically permissible in Islam, if not obligatory. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, urged his followers to practice some sort of sport and exercise that help keep the body fit, as long as that it doesn’t entail harm.

As for boxing, it is permissible if it’s taken as a mere hobby to train oneself on how to practice this sport, without taking a human being as a target (i.e., one should direct the fists to a punch bag and not to a person). But, one should not think of adopting it as profession. This is not permissible, due to the great harm and untold risk it involves, especially to the body and life of the victim. Islam never allows inflicting harm on any person; Muslim or non-Muslim. This is based on the juristic rule: “There should be neither harm nor reciprocating injury”.

Besides, boxing entails directing blows to the head and face. This is forbidden in Islam, according to the Hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him: “If anyone of you fights (or, in another version, beats) a person, he should not hit him in the face." (Agreed upon by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

If you have any further comments, please don't hesitate to write back!

May Allah guide you to the straight path, and guide you to that which pleases Him, Amen.

'Sport' in the Hadith

'Sport' in the Hadith

The term 'sport' is used to denote the activities which the Holy Prophet (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) encouraged, such as archery, swimming, horse-riding, etc. The reason for this will be explained later.

(a) Horse Riding

Allâh (Azza wa jall) says in the Holy Qurân: "And (He created) horses, mules, and donkeys for you to ride and as an adornment...(Al Quraan 16:8)

Uqbah bin Âmir reported that the messenger of Allâh (Azza wa jall) said: Everything with which a man plays is unlawful except his shooting with arrows, and his training his horse, and his sporting with his wife; and verily these are of the truths. (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawoo,Ibn Majah)

The Holy Prophet (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: "There is blessing in the forelocks of horses."(Ahmad)

(b) Archery

Hazrat Uqbah Bin Âmir (Radiallâhu anhu) also narrates that he heard Rasulullah (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) saying:

"Whoever gives up archery after having learnt it, is not of us..."(Muslim)

On another occasion, the Prophet (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) once passed by a group of his Companions who were competing in archery. He encouraged them saying, "Shoot and I am with you."(Bukhari)

(c) Swimming

Hazrat Ibn Umar (R.A) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) said: "Teach your sons swimming and archery and teach your daughters sewing."(Baihaqi)

With regard to the participation of the Sahaba in the above activities, the jurists write:

a. "Anything done simply for futile pleasures or merely 'for fun' has no basis in Shariah as every action of a believer is orchestrated by the supreme command of Allâh and orientated towards attaining His pleasure only. And it is the culmination and perfection of faith wherein the servant attains pleasure only in fulfilling the command of His Master and his heart ingests and aspires at all times to ascertain the command of Allâh. When this becomes second-nature within man, then all his pleasures are converted and directed accordingly.

Hence, the encouragement of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) to the Sahaba and their participation in such activities was not to appease their personal motives or to derive any worldly pleasures thereby, but to gain the pleasure of Allâh and strive to fulfil His command and physically and mentally prepare for the propagation thereof in every way possible, even though it meant laying down their lives for it, which they practically demonstrated to mankind."

b. "The racing, wrestling and archery which Rasulullah (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) encouraged should not be viewed as sport in the way people of this time understand sport. Since these were activities associated with Jihad, he encouraged them."

c. "Their primary objective was to prepare themselves for Jihâd and the worldly benefits were secondary."

d. "For this, on the basis of Hadith, the Ulema have stated that horse-racing, donkey-racing, mule-racing and human race competitions should be held with the intention of preparing for jihad. This is mustahab (praiseworthy) and for this, one will be recompensated. Similarly, sword-fighting, archery and in today's times, practising with modern weapons like firearms, machine guns, anti-aircraft guns, tanks, submarines, planes, etc. on land, sea and air, and the time and money spent on them will gain recompense, provided the intention is for jihad. If such exercises and competitions are held and prizes are given so that people are more and more induced to be ready for defending and protecting their religion and country, or one-sided bets are offered, it is all permissible; i.e. he who completes the race first or excels others in a competition will be given a prize. However betting from both sides is not permissible, it is haram."(8)
(d) Footracing

The Prophet (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) himself raced with his wife. Hazrat Ayesha said: "I raced with the Prophet (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) and beat him in the race. Later when I had put on some weight, we raced again and he won. Then he said, 'This cancels that', referring to the previous occasion."(Ahmad, Abu Dawood)

Regarding this Hadith the jurists write:

a. "The Hadith regarding Nabi's (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) race with Hazrat Aishah (R.A) cannot be cited as a basis for encouraging sport because in his entire life, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) raced with her only on two occasions. When he did so, he instructed the others to leave the place so that the race could take place in privacy."

b. "The Hadith relating that Nabi (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) ran a race with Hazrat Aishah R.A. once while they were on a journey wherein Hazrat Aisha R.A. outshone Nabi (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) and sometime later wherein Nabi (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) beat her to the draw was a manifestation of the affectionate bond of love that existed between them and how matrimonial rights should be conducted as discussed under the chapter of Conjugal Rights and Intimacy between husband and wife in the books of Hadith. And this is actually a practical demonstration of another Hadith wherein Nabi (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) had reiterated:

'Every such engagement of man which entails play and amusement is null and void except archery, training one's horse and playing with one's wife, for these things constitute righteousness.' "

c. "As for the race with Ayesha (Radiallâhu anha), this is narrated only by her and no other Sahâbi (Radiallâhu anhu). This makes it obvious that this was in absolute privacy. Actually this race was not in the form of some sport. Rather, it was more in the form of playfulness and a manner of mirthful activity as is common in a healthy husband and wife relationship. If one practices this sunnah in the same manner (i.e. in absolute privacy) with one's wife, by all means. However, it cannot be used to justify the indulgence in modern day sports.
(e) Wrestling

The Prophet (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) once wrestled with a man called Rukanah who was well-known for his strength, throwing him down more than once. (Abu Dawood).

This Hadith has been explained as follows:

"The Hadith mentioning Rasulullah's wrestling with Rukanah is not encouragement for sport because the event took place at the request of Rukanah who wanted to ascertain whether Muhammed (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) was a Nabi or not. Rasulullah's victory over Rukanah was by way of Mu'jizah. This Hadith is not an encouragement for sport."

Relaxing the Mind and Body

At the outset, it is important to outline the Islamic stance on relaxation. With regard to relaxing the mind and body, there seems to be a general consensus amongst the different Ulama. The following are the views of four prominent South African jurists:

a. "Says the Qurân: 'Undoubtedly it is only through the Remembrance of Allâh that the hearts find contentment and satisfaction.' Ar-Ra'ad verse 28.

Says the Hadith: 'And your body also has a right over you." Bukhari

Hence to relax the body and mind and to maintain its physical well-being has been acceded to in Shariah, however, remaining within the limits of Shariah thereby and without exceeding the bounds and not engaging in any such activity which will make one unmindful and heedless of Allâh."

b. "Islam recognizes that Allâh has created human beings with needs and desires, so that, as they need to eat and drink, they also need to relax. The following incident substantiates that in Islam there is a time and place for everything permissible. Hazrat Hanzalah (R.A) states: Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) met me and asked, "How are you, Hanzalah?" I replied, "Hanzalah has become a hypocrite." He said, "SubhanAllâh! What are you saying?" I replied, "When we are with Allâh's Messenger (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam), he mentions the Fire and the Garden until it is as if we can see them. But when we leave Nabi's (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) company and play with our wives and children or busy ourselves with our properties, we forget much." Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) said, "By Allâh, I have experienced the same thing." He and I then went to visit Nabi (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) and I said, "O Messenger of Allâh (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam), when we are with you, you talk about the Fire and Garden until it is as if we can see them. Then we go out and play with our wives and the children and deal with our properties, and we forget much. Nabi (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) then said, "By Him in Whose Hands is my soul, if you were to continue at the same level at which you were when with me in remembering Allâh, the angels would shake hands with you when you are resting and when you walk about, but, O Hanzalah, there is a time (for this) and time (for that)." He repeated this phrase three times. (Mishkat pg.197-198)

Hazrat Ali (R.A) said: "Minds get tired as do bodies, so treat them with humour" and "Refresh your minds from time to time, for a tired mind becomes blind."

Pastimes are permissible provided that they provide the participant with relaxation and exercise and at the same time none of the laws of Shariah are compromised eg. dress, intermingling of sexes, gambling and betting etc."

c. " terms of the Shariah, it is permissible for Muslims to relax the mind and body provided it does not interfere with the basic obligatory and compulsory Islamic duties placed upon him/her. However it is declared Makrooh (abominable) in Shariah to engage in meaningless pastimes."

d. "Relaxing the body and mind are not just permissible; they are a requirement. The reason is obvious. With a refreshed body and mind one can engage in one's object more earnestly. However, the relaxation must not be in such a way which results in transgression of the laws of Shariah or in diversion from one's object of life.

Prohibited Sports

A number of sports have been explicitly prohibited by the Qurân and Hadith. These include:
a. Playing with dice

The Prophet (Sallallâhu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: "He who plays with dice is like the one who handles the flesh and blood of swine."(Muslim, Abu Dawood, Ahmad)
b. Games of Chance and Card - playing

Abdullah bin Amr reported that the messenger of Allâh (Azza wa jall) prohibited intoxicants, games of chance, card - playing and Gabairah (a kind of wine).(Abu Dawood)

A Hadith Regarding Sports

In a lengthy Hadith narrated by `Uqbah ibn Aamir (Radhiallaahu Anhu), Nabi
(Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said, 'Every Lahw
(amusements, pastimes, games, etc.) a man involves himself in is in vain
except practice of archery with his bow, teaching (breaking, training, etc.)
his horse and playing with his wife. (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud,
Daarimi; Mishkaat vol.1 pg.332; Qadeemi)

In another Hadith recorded by Tabrani (RA), narrated by Hadhrat Jabir
(Radhiallaahu Anhu) who reports of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) to
have said, 'Everything devoid of the remembrance of Allah Ta'ala is Lahw
save four actions; a) Walking between 2 targets (while practicing archery),
b) Training or disciplining of one's horse, c) Amusing oneself with the
company of one's wife, d) Learning of the art of swimming. (Targheeb Wa
Tarheeb vol.2 pg.389; Dar Ihya al-Turaath)

Doa Kesembuhan Sakit & Penyakit


Zaharuddin Abd Rahman

sami yusuf healing with lyric by from dakwahislami on Vimeo.

Kehidupan sebagai manusia tidak dapat dielakkan dari ditimpa pelbagai sakit dan penyakit, ada yang bersifat kejiwaan, pemikiran dan juga tentunya fizikal. Kesakitan fizikal boleh mengganggu prestasi fizikal. Namun agak terhad kepada dirinya sahaja. Lebih merbahaya, penyakit jiwa, dimana kejahatannya boleh menimpa kepada orang lain dan persekitarannya.

Di dalam kejahilan umat Islam hari ini, agak dukacita melihat bomoh dan perawatan jampi dengan bacaan pelik, menurun, tangkal hikmah yang tidak tahu apa isinya kerap menjadi pilihan. Kononnya sebagai ikhtiyar, malangnya tidak disedari tindakan bertemu bomoh dan perawat sedemikian dengan mudah membawa syirik.

Jika di dalam rumah dan pejabat kita sering ada first aid kit yang boleh dimanfaatkan ketika terdapat kemalangan dan pesakit di sekeliling. Dalam tulisan ini ringkas ini, saya sertakan beberapa rawatan awal yang boleh kita selaku Muslim yang mukmin lakukan kepada pasangan, anak dan diri kita apabila ditimpa pelbagai jenis kesakitan. Namun jangan dilupa, bertemu doktor itu PERLU.

Bacalah doa-doa ini semasa menghadapi sakit fizikal, moga ia juga berkesan untuk ketenangan mental dan iman kita. Doanya berwarna BIRU dan selebihnya yakinilah kuasa Allah yang mengawal seluruh alam dan makhluk, Maha Penyembuh.

Sebenarnya banyak lagi ayat Al-Quran dan doa dari hadis yang boleh dibaca, namuan untuk tidak membebankan pemikiran pembaca, cukuplah kita memilih beberapa terlebih dahulu.

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا اشتكى منا إنسان مسحه بيمينه ثم قال اِذْهَبِ البَأْسَ رَبَّ النَّاسِ وَاشْفِ أَنْتَ الشَّافِي لاَ شِفَاءً إِلَّا شِفَاؤُكَ شِفَاءً لَا يُغَادِرُ سَقَماً

Ertinya : Nabi s.a.w ketika didatangi aduan (sakit) oleh seseorang, nabi akan menyapunya dengan tangan kanan baginda sambil membaca " Jauhkanlah dia dari kesakitan, wahai Tuhan sekalian manusia, sembuhkanlah dia, dan engkaulah maha penyembuh yang tidak akan datang kesembuhan kecuali datang dariMu, kesembuhan dari jenis yang tidak akan kembali penyakitnya"( Riwayat Muslim)

كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يعوذ الحسن والحسين ويقول : إن أباكما كان يعوذ بها إسماعيل وإٍسحاق أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللهِ التَّامَّةِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْطاَنٍ وَهَامَّةٍ وَمِنْ كُلِّ عَيْنٍ لَامَّة (رواه البخاري)

Ertinya : Nabi s.a.w ketika sedang meminta perlindungan untuk Al-Hasan dan Al-Husain berkata : Sesungguhnya kedua-dua ibu bapamu meminta perlindungan dengan (bacaan) yang dibuat oleh Nabi Ismail dan Ishak iaitu : "Aku berlindung dengan kalimah-kalimah Allah yang sempurna, daripada setiap Syaitan dan mahkluk berbisa dan dari setiap pandangan mata dengki & hasad yang berniat jahat" ( Riwayat Al-Bukhari)

أن جبرائيل أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال يا محمد اشتكيت ؟ قال نعم , قال : بِسْمِ اللهِ أُرْقِيْكَ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْئٍ يُؤْذِيْكَ مِنْ شَرِّ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ أَوْعَيْنٍ أَوْ حَاسِدٍ , اللهُ يُشْفِيْكَ بِسْمِ اللهِ أُرْقِيْكَ

Ertinya : Telah datang Jibrail kepada nabi sa.w dan berkata : Wahai Muhammad, adakah kamu mengadu kerana sakit? . Jawab Nabi " Ya". Jibrail membalas " Bacalah "Dengan nama Allah yang mengubatimu, dari segala perkara yang menyakitimu, dan juga dari kejahatan setiap jiwa,mata dan hasad. Allah akan menyembuhkanya dan dengan namaNya engkau disembuhkan"

Baca tujuh kali dengan tangan diletak di tempat sakit , kemudian baca Bismillah tiga kali dan terus baca doa berwarna biru :

أنه شكا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وجعا يجده في جسده منذ أسلم فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ضع يدك على الذي تألم من جسدك وقل باسم الله ثلاثا , وقل سبع مرات : أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ وَقُدْرَتِهِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا أَجِدُ وَأُحَاذِرُ

Ertinya : Seorang sahabat datang mengadu kepada Nabi berkenaan kesakaitan yang terdapat ditubuhnya sejak dari ia masuk Islam, lalu nabi mengajarkan berkata : " Letakkan tanganmu ditempat yang kamu merasai sakit itu dan bacalah Bismillah tiga kali dan kemudian bacalah tujuh kali : " Aku berlindung dengan kuasa Allah dari segala kejahatan yang telah menimpaku dan yang aku ingin hindari. ( Riwayat Muslim)

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من عاد مريضا لم يحضر اجله فقال عنده سبع مرارٍ أَسْأَلُ اللهَ العَظِيْمَ رَبَّ العَرْشِ العَظِيْمِ أَنْ يُشْفِيَكَ إلا عافاه الله من ذلك المرض

Ertinya : Nabi telah berkata " Barangsiapa melawat orang yang sakit yang belum kelihatan akan tiba ajalnya (sakit yang dikira boleh sembuh), bacalah di sisinya tujuh kali : " Aku memohon kepada Allah yang maha agung, tuhan bagi arasy yang agung agar menyembuhkanmu". Tiadalah dibacakah itu kecuali akan disembuhkan dengan izin Allah dari sakit tersebut. ( At-Tirmidzi : hadis Sohih)

Imam Ibn Qayyim berkata “dari kaedah pelindung dan penyembuh dari hasad mata dan yang sepertinya adalah membaca dau Qul ( Surah An-Naas dan Al-Al-Falaq) dan Al-fatihah, ayat Kursi dan lain-lain doa dari hadis nabi” iaitu antaranya seperti di atas. (At-Tibb al-Nabawi, hlm 168)

Semoga sakit yang dideritai beransur sembuh. Termasuklah penyakit malas solat, panas baran, ketagih porno dan sebagainya. Cubalah amalkan doa-doa di atas juga.


Zaharuddin Abd Rahman

28 Oktober 2010

Doa-doa lain

1. أعوذ بكلمات الله التامة التى لايجاوزهن بر ولا فاجر من شر ما ينزل من السماء، ومن شر مايعرج فيها، ومن شر ما ذرأ فى الأرض،ومن شر مايخرج منها ومن فتن الليل والنهار ، ومن شر طوارق الليل والنهار إلاطارقا يطرق بخير يارحمن (رواه الترمذى وإسناده صحيح(

2. أعوذ بكلمات الله التامات من غضبه وعقابه ومن شر عباده ومن شر همزات الشياطين وأن يحضرون (أخرجه وحسنه الألبانى(

3. حسبى الله لاإله إلا هو عليه توكلت وهو رب العرش العظيم (سبع مرات ) (رواه أبوداود(

4. بسم الله الذى لايضر مع اسمه شىء فى الأرض ولا فى السماء وهو السميع العليم (ثلاثا) (رواه أبوداود وهو حديث صحيح(

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Khadijah bint Khuwailid: The First Lady of Islam

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

KHADIJAH (radiallahu ‘anhaa)

She was Khadijah bint Khuwailid ibn Asad ibn 'Abd al-'Uzza ibn Qusay ibn Kilab (from one of the notable clans of the Quraish). Her mother was Fatima bint Za'ida who was descended from another of the clans of the Quraish:The genealogists of the Arabs describe the Prophet as Muhammad ibn'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusay ibn Kilab. He was therefore one of her cousins, or more precisely, one of her nephews, through a mutual great-grandfather Qusay ibn Kilab.

Since the Prophet belonged to the younger generation and lived in a quarter of Makkah far removed from hers, she was unacquainted with this young man, who had only in the recent past started his career as a trader and commission agent. Khadijah was herself a lady of dignity and opulence.

From two of her husbands she had inherited much wealth and many commercial banking houses. She sometimes lent money to reliable Quraish merchants on a profit-sharing basis. Sometimes she invested the capital of her creditors in trade caravans. In fact, Khadijah had heard of the honesty, trustworthiness, high moral character and clean habits of Muhammad (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him). She also realized something of his spiritual capacities, and, as we may unmistakably say, these attracted her.

The Prophet Muhammad (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him) was popularly known as al-Amin (the Trust-worthy), and also by another fitting title al-Sadiq (the Truthful). She belonged to a respectable upper middle-class family of Makkah, and that in the past she had been married to two men. Khadijah was a lady of middle age, just forty. She had never taken the risk of entrusting her fleet of camels to someone that might disappear with it into the deserts of Syria and never be heard of any more.

To look after domestic affairs, she kept a slave-girl; and a slave called Maysara was also in her service. She was a true believer and steadfast. She was devout. She performed all the rituals of Islam. She observed the stipulated Salat with Muhammad (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him). She was always the first to learn the Qur'an and Commandments of Allah. She fasted as Muhammad did. She gave alms. She gave in the cause of Allah all the wealth she had. On no occasion did she think of retaining the slightest bit of wealth for herself. She had, in fact, sacrificed her ease and comfort for the sake of Allah and His Messenger.

Khadijah was a typical Makkan lady of the Quraish, fair and modest in her general demeanour and meticulously submissive and obedient to her husband. She was a devoted wife. She loved Muhammad. She had a great attachment to him. She admired his genuinely transcendental qualities. She revered him for his superb and sublime thoughts. She adored him for having been blessed with divine achievements. With full earnestness, she recognised the awe-inspire. atmosphere that hallowed his personality. She acted accordingly. She looked after him. She took care of him. She helped him. She cooperated with him. She made all types of sacrifices for him. Yet she was able to console and comfort him in distress in his early days of prophethood. KhadIjah, the First of the Believers When the Prophet came home after receiving the revelation and told her about the story, she calmed him, and then she took her overgarment and set forth to her cousin Waraqa ibn Nawfal. There she related to him all that her husband Muhammad had told her of what he had seen and heard. "Quddus, quddus (grand, grand!)-, exclaimed Waraqa, "O Khadijah, it is a very good news! Certainly by Him in Whose Hand is Waraqa's soul, if what you have related to me is true, O Khadijah, there has, after all, come unto him the Great Namus (Jibril or Gabriel) who came to Moses. And certainly he is the Prophet of this people. Congratulate him. Let him now be steadfast".

With this message, Khadijah hurried back home and told her husband what Waraqa had said. This calmed his fears somewhat. Khadijah was now a convinced believer. She was a true believer. She was a devoted believer. She was indeed the first believer.

Most of the biographers of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him) dismiss the early period of the "Call" in a few pages. In fact, this period is intimately associated with the sagacity of Khadijah and her faith in Allah and His Messenger and also with the unremitting encouragement that she gave to Muhammad (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him). The history of the early Revelations is rich in information about the mutual relationship between Muhammad (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him) and his first wife, Khadijah. By simply putting together scraps of source material, as they occur in the various exegetical works (i.e., Tafsir literature) and the compilations of traditions, we can easily evolve an image of the personality of Khadijah. Khadijah falls ill and dies The period of boycott, during which the Hashmites (Bani Hashim) remained almost shut away from the outer world, was a period of great ordeal. The conditions to which they had been subjected told upon the general health of the women and children. Khadijah who had already been worn down by the hardships in Shi'b Abi Talib, to which she had never been used, fell ill. It was some time in December, 619 A.D. that she died after a brief illness of three days.


This was Khadijah, whom Muhammad always remembered with feelings of love and affection, even when he was later the Sole ruler of Arabia and had many beautiful wives around him at Medinah. Abu Hurairah reported that Gabriel came to the Prophet and said, "Allah's Messenger, here is Khadijah who has come bringing a vessel containing food. When she comes, give her a greeting from her Lord and from me, and give her the good news that in Paradise she will have a house of brilliant pearls". (Bukhari and Muslim).

The intensity of the Prophet’s love and regard for Khadijah is shown by the following incident. A'isha reported that once she hurt his feelings on this issue and he replied, "Allah has blessed me with her love."

On another occasion A'isha asked him if she had been the only woman worthy of his love, and Muhammad (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him) replied in an honest burst of tenderness." She believed in me when nobody else did, she embraced Islam when people disbelieved me and she helped me and comforted me when there was none to lend me a helping hand." This incident is described by Carlyle in these words: "He never forget this good Khadijah. Long afterwards, A'isha, his young and favorite wife, a woman who indeed distinguished herself among the Muslims by all manner of qualities through her whole life; this young and brilliant A'isha was, one day, questioning him. Now am I not better than Khadijah? She was a widow; old, and had lost her looks; you love me better than you did her? 'No, by God!' answered Muhammad, she believed in me when none else would believe. In the whole world I had but one friend, and she was that. "2 He adds, "He seems to have lived in a most affectionate, peaceable, wholesome way with this wedded benefaction, loving her truly, and her alone. "2 There are many incidents in the books of hadith and tarikh which throw some light on the depth of the feeling of natural love and affection between Muhammad (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him) and Khadijah.

It is narrated by A'isha that the sister of Khadijah, Halah bint Khuwailid, asked for permission to see the Prophet. (Peace & Prayers Be Upon Him). He remembered the act of permission of Khadijah for he recognised her voice which resembled that of Khadijah. He was pleased and said that was Halah bint Khuwailid. A'isha said that, hearing that, she felt envious and remarked," Do you mean one of the women of the Quraish, whose legs were lean and who died long ago? Allah has given you a better companion instead." (Muslim). She also reported that when the Quraish of Makkah paid compensation to free their captives from the battle of Badr, the Prophet's daughter Zainab also made arrangements to free her husband, Abu Al-As. She sent some cash which also contained a necklace given to her by her mother Khadijah in her wedding gifts. Seeing this necklace of Khadijah, the prophet was deeply moved and asked his companions, "If you consider it proper, you may release her husband for her sake and also return her necklace. They all accepted this with pleasure and released Abu Al-A’as and also returned the necklace to Zainab.

When the Wife is unhappy with her Husband

by Dr. Ahmad Shafaat (1984)

Qur'an 4:34 (Surah Nisa, aya't 4) gives some guidance as to how to deal with marriage difficulties when husbands feel that their wives are being deliberately nasty to them. The Holy Qur'an also gives guidance for cases when it is the wife who thinks that she is being mistreated and feels unhappy about it.

In this connection it must, first of all, be clearly understood by all Muslims that the Holy Qur'an unequivocally prohibits keeping women in wedlock against their will. In Surah al-Baqarah, verse 231, it is said:

"And do not retain them (i.e. women) in wedlock against their will in order to hurt them. He who does such a thing indeed sins against himself. And do not take the signs of God lightly..."

And in Surah an-Nisa verse 19 we read:

"O YOU who have attained to faith! It is not lawful for you to [try to] become heirs of your wives [by holding onto them] against their will."

These verses appear in some particular contexts but they clearly contain the principle (also found in Hadith) that women can be brought into the marriage relationship and kept in that relationship only if they want to do so.

In some cultures, including parts of the Muslim world, women are sometimes beaten by their relatives into marrying men of the relatives' own choice or beaten to stay in the marriage bond. Those who do that commit a sin and unless forgiven by the women concerned will be punished by hell-fire in the hereafter.

It is true, as we have seen in another article, that husbands can lightly beat their wives when they show prolonged and deliberately nasty behaviour but such beating can be done only when the intention to stay in the marriage bond is intact on the part of both the husband and the wife. The moment the wife makes up her mind that she does not wish to remain in the marriage bond and she clearly expresses this decision on her part, the husband ceases to have any justification in the sight of God to beat her.

It is not only by physical force that women are sometimes kept in marriage against their will. More often it is social or economic pressures that are used, consciously or unconsciously, to keep them tied in the unwanted relationship. In Surah an-Nisa' the Book of God combats such social and economic pressures:

"If a woman fears ill-treatment (mushuz) or indifference (i'radh) from her husband, it is not wrong if (at her initiative) the two set things peacefully to right between themselves; for, peace is best, and selfishness is ever present in human souls. But if you do good and are conscious of Him, behold, God is aware of all that you do... If the two break up, God provides everyone out of His abundance, for God is resourceful, wise." (4:128-130)

In many cultures, including the Muslim culture, it is considered taboo on the part of a woman, especially if she is of "noble" (sharif) descent, to express unhappiness with marriage and to try to do something about it (except in cases of extreme cruelty on the part of the husband). This type of attitude is part of the social pressure which is used to keep women suppressed. The Qur'an says that if a woman feels that her husband is too indifferent to her, i.e. does not give enough love to her or mistreats her and she is therefore unhappy, there is nothing wrong if she initiates steps to change the situation.

It should be noted that whenever the Qur'an says "there is nothing wrong" or "it is not wrong" (la junaha), it means to fight certain social taboos and established psychological attitudes. In the above passage it is fighting the attitude which expects women to continue in the marriage bond as the husbands keep them regardless of whether the wife is reasonably happy or not.

The first step that a woman should take to change her marriage situation, if she is unhappy with it, is, of course, to "talk it out" with her husband. This may lead to one of two things: a greater understanding between the two resulting in a satisfactory change in the husband's attitude or a mutual decision to dissolve the marriage bond (with the wife possibly returning par of the dowry (2:229)). Such peaceful settling of matters is beautifully encouraged in the words

"peace is best, and selfishness is ever present in human soul. But if you do good and are conscious of God, behold, God is aware of all that you do."

Selfishness is accepted here as an inevitable condition of the human soul, so we are not expected to altogether get rid of it. What we are expected to do is to balance our selfishness with God consciousness and consideration for others. This means that we should pursue our self-interests within the limits set by God for our own good and also do something for others instead of being all the time concerned with ourselves.

It is in such a spirit that the husband and wife should discuss their marriage difficulties. Both have the right to expect happiness from the marriage relationship but each of them should seek happiness with consciousness of God and some concern for the happiness of the other partner in marriage. If the husband is not inclined to discuss things in this spirit and continues to mistreat the wife, then the wife can go to an Islamic court which must then impose a settlement on the husband on just terms. This is because it is the duty of Islamic courts to enforce the law of God and deal with all forms of zulm (injustice).

The Holy Qur'an wishes to make it socially acceptable for a wife to seek a change in her marriage situation if she feels that her husband mistreats her or is indifferent to her. But social acceptability alone is not enough; for, as noted earlier, tied with social taboos are economic considerations that often pressure the woman to accept her unhappy marriage situation. The Qur'an says that this should not be the case. It reminds all the concerned persons - the wife, the husband and relatives that:

"God provides everyone out of His abundance, for God is resourceful, wise" (4:130)

If all attempts on the part of the wife to establish a reasonably happy and dignified relationship with her husband fail and breakup of the marriage is the only option, then this option should not be rejected only for economic reasons. Let the wife and her relatives trust in God who is the real provider of all. Marriage should be viewed primarily as a love relationship (30:21) and not as an economic relationship.

The reminder that God is the provider of all is also meant for the husband. It tells him that he should not be too stingily and try to get back every penny that he might have spent on the wife but rather settle on equitable, if not generous, terms. God, who provided him all that he spent on his wife, may provide him yet more out of His infinite abundance.

It is instructive to note a couple of differences between the passage considered above and verse 34 of the same Surah an-Nisa' dealing with the case when it is the husband who is unhappy with the wife. In the latter case it is simply said: "If you (i.e. husbands) part" whereas in the above passage it is said "If a woman fears nushuz or i'radh on her husbands part." The addition of i'radh meaning turning away or becoming indifferent in case of a husband and its omission in the case of a wife is significant. This is a recognition that in love and sex relationship man's role is a more active one in the sense that he is the one who makes most of the first moves [Anjum Jaleel's Comments: Is it also true in case of the Western women?] and therefore as a rule he alone can do i'radh: she can, as a rule, only refuse to respond (which if done willfully and too often would come under nushuz and would be dealt with as such).

Another difference between the two cases is that when the husband fears nushuz on the part of the wife he can, after due admonition and talking, separate the wife in bed and then lightly beat her while such measures are not suggested to the wife if she is the one who fears nushuz or i'drah from the husband. This is, of course, not because the Qur'an sees anything wrong in principle with the wife separating herself in bed from the ill-treating husband or even beating him. The reason rather is that the Qur'an recognizes the well-observed fact that as a rule women are physically weaker than men and therefore it would be difficult for her to implement such measures against the husband. Unlike the sentimental feminists, the Qur'an is wise enough and realistic enough to first admit that in general women are indeed physically weaker than men and then to realize that it would be totally unhelpful to ask a weaker partner to use forceful methods against a stronger one, especially if that stronger partner is already mistreating her.

But this does not mean that Islam leaves women at the mercy of their husbands. If despite being a Muslim a husband fails to respect the principles outlined in the Qur'an and instead of peacefully settling matters with the wife shows neither the inclination to treat her as a husband should treat a wife nor lets her go in a maruf (just and public) way, then it is the collective duty of the Muslim society to step in and, through a suitable legal system, enforce the law of God by imposing a settlement on the husband on terms judged equitable by an impartial court. It is regrettable that Muslim societies have not yet evolved such a suitable legal system to give women adequate protection against their stronger marriage partners should these stronger partners abandon love and tenderness and turn nasty.

Women, Polygamy and Islam

It has been considered for years that Islam does not give equal rights to men and women, and consider women only subject of comfort for males. This opinion has been delivered time and time again by renowned women activists but their basis of arguments being only the alleged facts. Their main argument is against the permission given towards polygamy in Islam. But many scholars who have gone through the pain in studying what Islam actually says have different opinion. They agree, in general, that Islam's approach to polygamy is most balanced and rational and is based on the moral, psychological and physiological demands of men and women (The Independent 13).

It should be remembered that taking more than one wife is only permissible, not ordained by the Quran - as some 'progressive' activist would like to believe. The Quranic verse that allows polygamy should be read in the context it was revealed. The Verse says, "And if you fear that you cannot act equitably towards orphans, then marry such women as seem good to you, two, three and four, but if you fear that you may not do justice to them, then (marry) only one" (4: 3). This verse was revealed after the battle of Uhud. In that battle, many Muslim men died and as such a great social problem for the protection of widows and orphans arose, necessitating an institutionalized polygamy for a convenient solution of the problem.

Some of the eminent Western scholars who actually studied Islam, quite blatantly criticized the Western and other self proclaimed writers for venting their opinion as facts. In her book The Life and Teachings of Muhammed, Dr. Annie Besant, the renowned English leader of Theosophical Movement, says: " There is pretended monogamy in the West, but in reality, there is polygamy without responsibility; the mistress is cast off when the man is weary of her ... the first lover has no responsibility for her future, and she is a hundred times worst off then the sheltered wife in a polygamous home. "When we see thousands of miserable women who crowd the streets of Western towns during the night, we must surely feel that it does not lie in the Western mouth to reproach Islam for polygamy. It is better for woman, happier for woman, more respectable for woman to live in polygamy, united to one man, only with a legitimate child in her arms and surrounded with respect, than to be seduced and then cast out into the streets perhaps with illegitimate child outside the rule of law, uncared, unsheltered, to become victim of any passer-by, night after night, rendered incapable of motherhood despised by all. "You can find others," continues Annie Besant, "stating that religion Islam is evil because it sanctions a limited polygamy. But you do not hear as a rule the criticism ... that monogamy with a blended mass of prostitution was a hypocrisy and more degrading than a limited polygamy. "... it must be remembered that the law of Islam in relation to women was until lately, when parts of it was imitated initiated in England, the most just law, as far as women are concerned, to be found in the world. Dealing with property, ...rights of succession,... cases of divorce, it was far beyond the law of the West, in the respect which was paid to the rights of women. Those things are forgotten while people are hypnotized by the words monogamy and polygamy and do not look at what lies behind it in the West - the frightful degradation of women..."

Divorce in Islam

The next point of confrontation regarding women is the issue of divorce. It is a well accepted thought that Islam allows the husband to get rid of his wife on his free will, any time he likes by uttering a particular word three times repeatedly. This idea is totally baseless and has got nothing to do with Islam is quite clear when one takes the pain of studying it. first of all, the marriage in Islam is a social contract, and it can be dissolved if it proves, in any way, injurious or incompatible to the wife or to the husband. The wife has been given as much right to obtain the divorce as the husband. But the process of divorce has been set with a time limit of three months, so that a major decision like this is not taken in a moment of anger, and then both of them reproaches it after their anger vents out. This has been clearly instructed in the Holy Quran, but made unnecessarily confused by some elite class to suite their own purpose. On the Timing of divorce: " O Prophet! if ye do divorce woman, divorce them at their prescribed periods, and count (accurately) their prescribed periods: And fear Allah, your Lord: And turn them not out of your houses, nor shall they (themselves) leave, except in case they are guilty of open lewdness " (LXV: 1). On waiting periods for divorced women: " Divorced woman must wait three monthly courses. And it is not lawful for them to hide what Allah has created in their wombs, if they sincerely believe in Allah and the last day..." (2:228) Thus a clear three months period is mandatory before the final pronouncement is to be given. Each pronouncement of Talaq has to be made with a month's increment between it, so that their is chance that the couple repents and decide to continue their life together. After all, the prophet's saying goes 'Divorce is most disliked by Allah among all permissible things.' As women have got full rights to decide on to their separations, they also have full rights to chose partners in marriage, which is against what the 'learned' class would like to believe. No marriage in Islam is valid unless the bride and the bride-groom give their verbal consents regarding their marriage.

Status of Women in Islam

The status given to the women by Islam is another point of conflict as most of the "literate lots" would very much like to believe that women in Islam are still unliberated. However, it would be pointless to defend Islam by saying that Islam did give Women full equality in all respect to men (as some scholars defending Islam tried to do), as in reality, Islam does recognize the fact that women and men have their differences on the basis of their physical and physiological aspects, which is clearly stated in the Holy Quran in the following verses: "... Wives have the same rights as the husbands have on them in accordance with the generally known principles. Ofcourse, men are a degree above them in status, and above all is Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise" (2: 228). "Men are in charge of women because Allah has made the one superior to the other and because men spend their wealth on women" (4: 34).

Thus, in Islam, men and women have absolute equality in stature, but with a complete difference in labor. Being subjected to the responsibility of taking care of the house-holds, is considered somewhat degrading nowadays, forwarding the possible idea that Islam has kept women away from nation building. But if we are to consider Napoleon's saying that 'Give me a good mother; I will give you a good nation', then we can see that in reality nation building starts at home, and failure to learn correct guidance at home would lead the generations to degrade, without even being concerned over it. In fact the Islamic concept of household is that it is the smallest unit in the greater organization of the Nation as a whole. The home is a little kingdom where authority is exercised by both husband and wife.

Never Say Never

by A Muslim Sister

As an American woman embracing Islam, there are often hurdles and challenges to be met. One of the most difficult aspects of Islam for me to accept was the permissibility of polygyny. The very thought of it seemed so bizarre and I chose to ignore it rather than accept it or to ever take part in it.

I embraced Islam about 7 years ago. This was also the beginning of a long struggle in search of the perfect husband and father figure for my children and me. I was provided a Wali from my community in order to handle this matter in the correct manner as to avoid mixing unnecessarily with other men, as well as to protect my best interests. It was a difficult process as most of the Brothers whom showed interest in marriage to me were looking for a second wife. It seemed that there were no single Brothers looking for a wife who already had children.

Almost a year of searching (I was feeling very desperate!), my Wali was approached by another Brother. Of course he too was searching for a second wife after moving to this country because of political/economic reasons. My Wali informed me that he seemed very sincere. He needed another wife as he planned on being in the US for several years and wanted to avoid living in haram. The Brother came here in hopes of providing better for his family overseas. To my dismay he had several children, didn't speak English, and did not have any formal education as he started working from the time he was 13 years old. He was even older than I preferred. However, I was informed that he is a good provider and a hard, skilled worker.

I still refused to meet with him because I did not want any part of a plural marriage. How could I share a man with another woman? How could I compete with the bond that they must share having several children together? Where would I fit in and how could I compete with all that it entails? Besides, he wasn't even educated! I couldn't imagine how he could possibly support the large family he already had as well as another family! Not to mention he was not a legal resident and I feared he was looking for a green card. It did not matter that I was desperate, I still would not agree to such circumstances. I would just continue to wait for the right person to come along.

Al hamdulillah! A couple of weeks later, another Brother was interested in meeting with me! He was only a couple of years older than I, never married, and no children. Not only that, he was educated (working on his Ph.D.), fluent in English and a legal resident! I was so excited to meet him I could hardly wait! He sounded like the ideal husband!

Right away, we met with each other and talked (with my Wali present of course). We both felt that we were perfect for each other. We were eventually married and we both felt very blessed. All of my prayers were being answered and my search had finally come to an end. I was so relieved and excited to begin a new life with my new husband. We packed all my belongings and moved to the state he resided in. I felt that my life could not be more perfect than it was now!

Well, Sisters, I couldn't be more wrong. After the move, my life started to fall apart really fast. Almost immediately, I could see signs of conflict between us. I couldn't believe it! My world came crashing down on me! I could actually see it happening right in front of my face but I could not stop it from happening. Two people never clashed as much as we did! How could this be happening to me? We disagreed about everything! We simply were not compatible. However, I was determined not to lose this marriage! I never wanted anything more badly than I wanted this marriage! I couldn't understand why this was happening when our marriage was based on Islam. We continued talking but neither one of us could understand what the other was saying. Eventually we were like enemies and it was getting really ugly. I began despising the way he talked, walked, laughed, etc. (I am sure he felt the same way.) At this point we both felt that divorce was the only answer. I felt like a total failure and I was so ashamed! I could never return home and be the talk of the community! My Iman had dropped very low. I only wanted to disappear.

I contacted my Wali's wife and she gave me the number to a very nice Sister in another state. I called her (Maashaallah) and she agreed to help me relocate to where she lived. (This state was even further away!). Consider me crazy but I decided to go for it! I felt that I had nothing else to lose. I loaded all of my belongings in the back of a U-Haul trailer and we left for our new home. I was really scared. The drive was about 17 hours long and I had never driven for more than 3 hours by myself. I would just have to think of it as an adventure and say Bismillah!

The next day, I arrived at my final destination. I found the home of this very sweet Muslim Sister (Maashaallah). Previously, I had spoken to her briefly on the phone and never actually met her in person. I was pleasantly surprised to see a Sister in niqab come out and greet me so warmly. I was so exhausted from driving (especially on the freeways in this large city). My niqaabi Sister was so enthusiastic; I soon forgot my troubles. She drove me all over the city in search of an apartment. Al hamdulillah by the end of the day Allah (S) provided me with an apartment in a really nice community with several other Muslim families. The apartment manager skipped the credit check, as that would have taken more time! Everything happened so smoothly with such ease, that I knew that this was what Allah (S) wanted for me. I felt I had made the right choice by moving there.

The very next day, Allah (S) provided me with a job! I started right away. My employer was Muslim and didn't mind that I wore hijab. For once I felt happy and at peace with myself. I started to feel that maybe it wasn't meant for me to be married and that I was probably better off single. I started making many friends right away. I met so many nice Sisters and my Iman was getting stronger once again.

After my Iddah, a Muslim Sister approached me from my apartment complex. She wanted to know if I was interested in getting married again. She insisted that she had the perfect Brother for me. (How about that!?) A little reluctant, I listened to what she had to say. She explained to me that he lived in my home state and that he was a hard worker and a good Muslim. He was very, close friends with her husband so he wasn't a complete stranger. Then she came to the "he's looking for a second wife part." (Not that again!!!) I immediately told her I was not interested in a polygynous relationship. She understood how I felt and did not pressure me any further.

That very evening, I went to bed thinking how awful it would feel to be a woman and share your husband with another woman. I could never be a part of that! I felt that I was too jealous and selfish of a person. I felt so angry that men could do that to their wives. I couldn't even imagine how these women must feel.

The next morning I awoke thinking about the Brother who wanted a second wife. Somehow, Subhanallah, my heart felt lighter thinking about it. I actually began contemplating marriage as a second wife! (Imagine that!) I started thinking of all the positives that could result from this marriage. After all, he did have previous experience with women and children (a major problem in my previous marriage). Because of his experience and age (maturity) I felt that he might be better prepared to deal with my children and me.

That same morning I contacted the Sister and asked her for more information about this Brother and told her that I might be interested. (And Sisters, the entire time I was thinking that I must be out of my mind!) The Sister explained to me that this very sincere Brother was looking for a good Muslim (practicing) wife. He wanted her to be a part of his family and eventually return home with him to his native country. She went on to tell me that he does not speak any English and is not formally educated. He had been a hard worker from the time he was 13 years old. (Wait a minute! This sounds too familiar!!! Could this possibly be the same Brother I refused to meet over one and a half years ago?! That would be impossible considering, that this Sister is not familiar with any of my friends' back home - over 4 states away!) After inquiring, she informed me of his name and where he worked. After our conversation ended, I immediately called a friend of mine whose husband knew the Brother I previously refused to meet.

Subhanallah! It was the very same Brother! I was totally shocked! (Could this be a sign from Allah (T)?) I knew now that I had to meet with him. I shared the news with my friend and she immediately arranged for her husband to talk with the Brother and arrange a meeting. The Brother drove to meet me (a 17 hour drive) a couple of days later. Upon meeting him, I knew right away that this Brother was for me! We were both very pleased with each other. Two days later we were married at the masjid.

Alhamdulillah we have now been married going on 4 years now and I can honestly say that I have no regrets. Allah (T) has filled our hearts with love for each other that continuously grows. I previously believed that I would have to make too many sacrifices being part of a plural marriage. I now know that I have gained more than I have lost alhamdulillah! My life is now richer than it has ever been. I now have a wonderful, large family who love and care for my children and me. My children adore their stepfather and he adores them. My husband's other wife (Maashaallah) is my Sister and friend and I love her dearly. Her children are like my own - I love them and they love me as well. We all have the same goals and want what is best for all of us.

And yes, alhamdulillah my husband loves his other wife tremendously, and for that I love and respect him even more. I wouldn't want it any other way! He informs us that he loves both of us in the same way that a mother has room in her heart to love all of her children-differently (because we are both different), but at the same time -- equally (as can be expected). He only speaks kind words about each of us and at the same time is careful to try not to create jealousy or animosity between us. Of course I was jealous at first, (and so was she) as this is normal, however those feelings eventually turned into love and compassion for my Sister.

Allah (T) has been so good to me alhamdulillah! My husband (Maashaallah) supports all of us financially with Allah's help! (Even without a college degree and high paying corporal job). I have to admit that there were some difficulties at times when it comes to language barriers, but nothing we can't overcome with patience. My husband now speaks English well, and my knowledge of Arabic has greatly increased.

So Sisters, I just wanted to share my experience with you. Never say "never" because if it's Allah's will -- you can't avoid it. You can run (like I did) but you can't hide from what Allah (T) has planned for you. The most important thing to do is to put your faith in Allah (T) and surrender to Him. He has the ability to change and soften our hearts in any matter. Allah (T) knows best and may He continue to guide us all on the right path. Ameen.

Taken from Muslimah Inspirations.

Links of Islam and Economics

Links of Islam and Economics

Islam and Economics

Islamic Banking - By Mohamed Ariff
Islamic Financial System - By Ravil Hairetdinov
The Role of the Government in an Islamic Economy - by Shah Abdul Hannan
Mortgage - by Jamal Badawi
Mythology of Islamic Economics and Theology of east Asian Economic Miracle - M. A. Muqtedar Khan
Islamic Economics & Banking - By Tariq Talib Al-Anjari
Principles Of Islamic Banking - Nida-ul-Islam
Islamic Funding Structures And Financing Vehicles - Nida-ul-Islam
The Economic Challenge for the Ummah - Mufti Taqi Usmani
Forward Sales and Manufacturing Contracts - Mufti Taqi Usmani
Islamic Banking - By A.L.M. Abdul Gafoor
Islamic Economics & Banking - By Tariq Talib Al-Anjari
Islamic Epistemological Question Applied to Normative Issues of Trade and Development in the Muslim World
Seeking Halal Earning - By Khalid Baig
Principles of Shariah Governing Islamic Investment Funds - Mufti Taqi Usmani
The Text of the Historic Judgment on Interest Given by the Supreme Court of Pakistan - Mufti Taqi Usmani in PDF
Mudaraba-based Investment and Finance - by A.L.M. Abdul Gafoor
Islamic Money against the Euro and Dollar

Principles of Islamic Economy

Principles of Islamic Economy

Islam did not introduce independent economic principles which were divorced from other aspects of life, in the manner of positive concepts. Islam has a realistic view towards life. In its opinion, all aspects of life are inter-dependent and its materialist side has to rely on its spiritual side. For this reason, Islam's economic principles are mixed with others which may be material, social or educational.

Nor does Islam, treat economics superficially, it makes a deep study of it, and in all other matters, it tries to find out the secrets of each problem. In The Holy Book and The Sunna these sound principles, based on a natural and realistic footing, are to be found everywhere. They are mentioned in these two sources in a way which follows the latest principles of education. This makes them directives for good behavior which can be easily assimilated and not just set principles which cannot reach the heart and which are difficult to apply except through violence and authority.

Islam allows ownership and gives this right to everybody, provided no harm is to be done to individuals or groups of individuals. It left to society the regularizing of its affairs within these limits according to environment and circumstances related to time and space. If the application of these principles is carried out properly and precisely, Islam is confident of their good results.

It is easy for everyone studying The Holy Book and The Sunna to realize how Islam deals with economy. Islam's way of approaching this can be summarized under the following points:
1 - Developing man's mind :

The Relation between man's mind and the economy is a powerful one, since the human mind is a sound measurement which man has to exploit not leave idle Allah says what means :

" In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, and the ships that run in the sea with that which profits men, and the water that Allah sends down from the sky, then gives therewith to the earth after its death and spreads in it all (kinds of) animals and the changing of the winds and the clouds made subservient between heaven and earth, there are surely signs for a people who understanding. (The Holy Quran)

The Quran repeats this meaning many times and in many chapters. It teaches man how to contemplate, and then how to order his relation with his world, in order that he may start on his own from the beginning, without any disturbance or distortion.

2- Faith in Allah is essential for man :

If man thinks deeply he will soon have faith in Allah. if such a man continues contemplation and thought, endeavoring to know about time and space and whatever numberless and changing worlds they include, he will feel that he is an atom in these worlds, which are ordered by sound and steady laws and which aim at certain objectives known to none except Allah. Submissively and quietly, he recognized only Allah and fears neither poverty nor harm. Allah says what means :

Those who believe and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah. Now surely in Allah's remembrance do hearts find rest. Those who believe and do good a good final state is theirs and goodly return And might belongs to Allah and His Messenger and the believers, but the hypocrites know not. (The Holy Quran)

3- Recognition of Private Ownership:

(i) Man must recognize and admit this principle. Allah says what means:

" Who make the earth a resting place for you and the heavens a structure, and sends down rain from the clouds then brings forth with it fruits for your sustenance; so do not set up rivals to Allah while you know. And make not over your property, which Allah has made a (mean of) support for you, to the weak of understanding, and maintain them out of it, and clothe them and give them a good education. (The Holy Quran)

The verses of The Holy Quran which deal with this point are numerous and there is insufficient space to deal with them here.

(ii) Combating of divergent opportunities regarding ownership : There should not be discrimination regarding, ownership due to birth, race, color or wealth. persons, are equal and only by the merit and worth of work can a man be superior. Allah says what means:

"And that man can have nothing but what he strives for. O people, keep your duty to Allah, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind), and spread from these two many men and women. And keep your duty to Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship. Surely Allah is ever a Watcher over you. O mankind, surely We have created you from a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other. Surely the noblest of you with Allah is the most dutiful of you. Surely Allah is Knowing, Aware. (The Holy Quran)

(iii) Delineation of the means for acquiring possessions : To have money is not a goal in itself, but a means by which life becomes stable and prosperous. In this respect, the fundamental principle of ownership that man can own anything without resorting to violence, should be taken into account. Man is forbidden from using force in obtaining ownership. Beyond this man is free to own anything. Allah says what means :

Say : The bad and the good are not equal, though the abundance of the bad may please thee. So keep your duty to Allah, O men of understanding, that you may succeed. Say Allah forbids only indecencies, such of them as are apparent and such as are concealed, and sin and unjust rebellion, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has sent down no authority, and that you say of Allah what you know not. (The Holy Quran)

To achieve that goal, Islam ordains the following:

(i) Individuals are forbidden to acquire money through gambling because to gamble is to usurp another's money without reward and because it constitutes an infringement of the rights of society, as opposed to the individual. It makes a member of particular society unable to perform his duties towards the community he lives in. Society requires from every member the offering of productive work. Allah says what means :

"O you who believe, intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (dividing by) arrows are only an uncleanness, the devil's work; so shun it that you may succeed. The devil desires only to create enmity and hatred among you by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you back from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. will you then keep back? (The Holy Quran)

(ii) People are forbidden from colleting money through usury. Usury increases the value of capital and encourages people with money not to work. In addition to that, it harbors hatred in the souls of the needy. In such a ease, the community cannot be stabilized and individuals feel no safety. Allah says what means:

" Those except as he arises who swallow usury cannot arises whom the devil prostrates by (his) touch. That is because they say, Trading is only like usury. And Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury. To whomsoever then the admonition has come from Allah, and he desists, he shall have what has already passed. And his affair is in the hands of Allah. And whoever returns (to it) - these are the companions of the Fire : therein they will allude - Allah will blot out usury, and lie causes charity to prosper. And Allah loves not any ungrateful sinner. And whatever you lay out at usury, so that it may increase in the property of man it increases not with Allah; and whatever you give in charity, desiring Allah's pleasure, these will get manifold. (The Holy Quran)

(iii) Islam prevents the accumulation of wealth by plundering and exploiting the weakness of others. Allah says what means:

" And swallow not up your property surely Allah is ever Aware of what you do among yourselves by false means, nor seek to gain access thereby to the judges, so that you may swallow up a part of the property of men wrongfully while you luiow. O you who believe, devour not your property among yourselves by illegal methods except that it be trading by your mutual consent. And kill not your people. Surely Allah is ever Merciful to you. Those who swallow the property of the orphans unjustly they swallow only fire into their bellies. And they will burn in blazing fire. Surely Allah commands you to make over trusts to those worthy of them, and that when you judge between people you judge with justice. Surely Allah admonishes you with what is excellent. Surely Allah is ever Hearing. Seeing. O you who believe, be maintainers of justice, bearers of witness for Allah, even though it be against your own selves or (your) parents or near relatives - whether he be rich or poor, Allah has a better right over them both. So follow not (your) low desires, lest you deviate. And if you distort or turn away from (truth), surely Allah is ever Aware of what you do. (The Holy Quran)

(iv) The organization of relations between employees and employers. Islam ordains that such relations must be founded on a basis of the mutual exchange of services and equality between all. Allah says what means :

" Do they apportion the mercy of Allah? We portion out among them their live hood in the life of this world, and We exalt some of them above others in rank that some of them may take others in service. And the mercy of thy Lord is better than that which they amass". (The Holy Quran)

The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, says on this point (The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim he should not do injustice to his brother nor leave him to the mercy of others). By adopting this principle, the morale of the worker rises and the employer's attitude towards him becomes free from any sense of exploitation or monopoly. Everybody has to offer something in order to obtain for himself whatever he is able or needs to obtain. Relations between both parties are to be based on collaboration, following the Prophet's words "There should be no harm for anyone".

(v) Islam combats man's excessive desire for ownership which may oblige one to resort to objectionable means or spend beyond his capacity in order to acquire something he does not need. Ownership is not an aim but a means for achieving cooperation between peoples in an attempt to secure happiness and welfare. The Holy Quran has a number of verses which explain that wealth and riches, like anything else, are determined by Allah and no power other than Allah's can increase or decrease what He decides for each human being. Allah says what means:

" Or who is it that will give you sustenance if he should withhold His sustenance? Nay, they persist in disdain and aversion. Is he who goes prone upon his face better guided or he who walks upright on a straight path? (The Holy Quran)

The Prophet also warns people against going to extremes.

As a practical religion, Islam guarantees for people their necessities. In case man should become unable to meet his requirements through his personal effort, the society in which he lives has to look after him. In such a case, Islam allows such a man to obtain money from the state treasury (Beit al Mal). Allah says what means:" Alms are only for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer it, for those whose hearts are to be propitiated, for the captives for those in debt and in the way of Allah and for the wayfarer - an ordinance from Allah. And Allah is Knowing, Wise. (The Holy Quran).

(vi) Islam defines the ways in which a man may enjoy whatever he possesses. In doing so, it never restricts man's liberty, but it sets up a barrier between man and excess in enjoying himself lest he should forget the others who live with him in the same community, or tends to usurp their rights. In this context Islam introduced some prohibitions and imposed restriction. Allah says what means:

" O ,men, eat the lawful and good things from what is in the earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil, Surely he is an open enemy to you. O you who believe, forbid not the good things which Allah has made lawful for you and exceed not the limits Surely Allah loves not those who exceed the limits. And eat of the lawful and good (things) that Allah has given you, and keep your duty to Allah, in Whom you believe. (The Holy Quran)

The Quran not only asks people to be reasonable in enjoying themselves, but warns those who deviate from the right path and tells them that they will go astray. Allah says what means :

"They are losers indeed who kill their children foolishly without knowledge, and forbid that which Allah has provided for them, forging a he against Allah. They indeed go astray, and are not guided. And He it is who produces gardens, trellised and untrellised, and palms and seed - produce of which the fruits are of various sorts, and olive and pomegranates, like and unlike. Eat of its fruit when it bears fruit, and pay the due of it on the day of its reaping, and be not prodigal. Surely He loves not the prodigals. And of the cattle (He has created) some for burden and some for slaughter. Eat of that which Allah has given you and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Surely he is your open enemy. Eight in pairs of the sheep two and of the goats two. Say Has He forbidden the two males or the two females or that which the wombs of the two females contain? Inform me with knowledge, if you are truthful; and of the camels two and of the cows two. Say : Has He forbidden the males or the two females or that which the wombs of the two females contain? Or were you witnesses when Allah enjoined you this? Who is then more unjust and he who forges a lie against Allah to lead men astray without knowledge? Surely Allah guides not the iniquitous people. (The Holy Quran)

(vii) Islam develops in man the spirit of Cooperation with others. It ordains that every man should give the needy a specified proportion of his wealth. By doing this, hatred against the wealthy people cannot be harbored by the poor. This is in accordance with Islam's aim which enjoins the achievement of security and order. Allah says what means:

"And keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and bow down with those who bow down. Only Allah is your Friend and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayer and pay the poor rate, and they bow down. Take alms out of their property thou wouldst cleanse them and purify them thereby - and pray for them. Surely thy prayer is a relief to them. And Allah is Hearing, Knowing. (The Holy Quran)

(viii) Islam safe and protects man's property. This is done in the following ways

(a) It protects peoples' properties from being stolen or pillaged by deterrent punishments. Allah says what means :

"The only punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered, or crucified, or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides, or they should be imprisoned. This shall be a disgrace for them in this world, and in the Hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement. And (as for) the man and the woman addicted to theft, cut off their hands as a punishment for what they have earned, an exemplary punishment from Allah. And Allah is Mighty, Wise. (The Holy Quran)

(b) Islam also protects people against fraud by forbidding anybody from using the property of another without any legal claim. Allah says what means

"And swallow not up your property among yourselves by false means, nor seek to gain access thereby to the judges, so that you may swallow up a part of The property of men wrongfully while you know. (The Holy Quran)

(c) Islam prohibits man from wastefully spending money, even for charity. Allah says what means:

" O men, eat the lawful and good things from what is in the earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Surely he is an open enemy to you. And give to the near of kin his due and (to) the needy and squander not wastefully. Surely the squanderers are the devil's brethren. And the devil is ever ungrateful to his Allah. And if thou turn away from them to seek mercy from Allah which thou hopest for, speak to them a gentle word. And make not thy hand to be shakied to thy neck, nor stretch it forth to the utmost (limit) of his stretching forth, lest thou sit down blamed, stripped off. And they who, when they spend are neither extravagant nor parsimonious, and the just means is ever between these. (The Holy Quran)

(ix) Islam creates the incentives to ownership since the absence of these incentives may lead to disinterestedness and frustration with the rigors of life. An individual is to leave his property to his relatives and this property serves also as a further incentive which requires from man not to give up an active life because he has reached the stage of self-sufficiency. To achieve this goals, Islam provided the inheritance laws. Allah says what means :

"For men is a share of what the parents and the near relatives leave, and for women a share of what the parents and the near relatives leave, whether it be little or much - an appointed share. And when relatives and the orphans and the needy are present at the division give them out of it and speak to them kind words. (The Holy Quran)

4 - Respect for the community:

Islam enjoins strengthening of family relations between its members since it believes that the family is the basis on which the society is founded. It also requires all members of every family to respect the rights and obligations towards the family and to consider the duties of rearing, protecting and looking after children. Allah says what means :

"And serve Allah, and associate naught with Him, and be good to the parents and to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the neighbor of (your) kin and the alien neighbor, and the companion in a journey and the wayfarer and those whom your right hands possess. Surely Allah loves not such as are proud, boastful, who are niggardly and bid people to be niggardly and hide that which Allah has given them out of His grace. And We have prepared for the disbelievers an abasing chastisement. And mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years, for him who desires to complete the time of suckling. And their maintenance and their clothing must be borne by the father according to usage. No soul shall be burdened beyond its capacity. Neither shall a mother be made to suffer harm on account of her child, nor a father on account of his child, and the similar duty devolved on the (father's) heir. And Allah has decreed that you serve none but Him, and do good to parents If either or both of them reach old age with thee, say not (Fie)to them, nor chide them, and speak to them a generous word And lower to them the wing of humility out of mercy, and say Allah, have mercy on them, as they brought me up (when I was) little. (The Holy Quran)

By these decrees the Holy Quran not only aims at the protection of the family, which is the basis of the society but it also protects the society against the following

(i) The accumulation of wealth. By the law of inheritance The Holy Quran decrees that big holdings be divided in a way which protects society against economic inflation and the accumulation of wealth by one single family, since it will harm society both in relation to its individual members in its general character and structure.

(ii) Selfishness dominating the members of society. Selfishness removes the element of harmony and cohesion in a society. Allah says what means :

"If your fathers and your brethren and your wives and your kinsfolk and the wealth you have acquired, and trade whose dullness you fear, and dwellings you love, are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger and striving in His way, then wait till Allah brings His command to pass. And Allah guides not the transgressing people. Go forth, light and heavy, and strive hard in Allah's way without your wealth and your lives. This is better for you, if you know. (The Holy Quran)

The restiveness of either the individual or the family and their deviation from the proper way is due to the dominance of the love of money, which they conceive of as a goal and not a means. Islam, in more than one of the verses of The Holy Quran, explains that wealth is not the means for securing stability and order-this is a fact which experience endorses. Allah says what means :

"Let not then their wealth nor their children excite thine admiration. Allah only wishes to chastise them there with in this world's life and (that) their souls may de part while they are disbelievers. Quran was surely of the people of Moses, but he oppressed them, and we gave him treasures, so much so that his hoards of wealth would weigh down a body of strong men. When his people said to him Exult not; surely Allah loves not the exultant. And seek the abode of the Hereafter by means of what Allah has given thee, and neglect not thy portion of the world, and do good (to others) as Allah has done good to thee, and seek not to make mischief in the land. Surely Allah loves not the mischief mackers. He said I have been given this only on account of the knowledge I have. Did he not know that Allah had destroyed before him generations who were mightier in strength than he and greater in assemblage? And the guilty are not questioned about their sins. And it is not your wealth, nor your children, that brings you near to Us in rank, but whoever believes and does good, for such is a double reward for what they do, and they are secure in the highest places. (The Holy Quran)

(iii) The domination of materialism and disappearance of idealism destroy the most powerful communities. Islam demands that should be given to people of limited incomes; this raises the normale of such people and safeguards others against loss in case they become incapacitated due to illness. Allah says what means:

" It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West, but righteous is the one who believes in Allah, and the last Day, and the angels, and the Book and the Prophets, and gives away wealth out of love for Him to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask and to set slaves free and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate; and the performers of their pronuse when they make a promise, and the patient in distress and affliction and in the time of conflict. These are they who are truthful; and those are they who keep their duty. Alms is only for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer it, and those whose hearts are made to incline (to truth), and (to free) the captives, and those in debt, and in the way of Allah and for the wayfarer - on ordinance from Allah And Allah is Knowing, Wise. (The Holy Quran)

Islam, by attractive promises, also persuades men to help others by granting them loans, without interest, seeking only the graciousness of Allah. Allah says what means :

Who is it that will offer to Allah a goodly gift, so He multiplies it to him manifold? And Allah receives and amplifies, and to Him you shall be returned. (The Holy Quran).

In respecting the collective identity of the community Islam not only protects them from aggression by individuals, but it gives preference, in case of conflict, to the community interest. Should it be necessary, the interest of the individual must be set aside in favor of the inter ests of the community.

Islam stipulates:

a) That individuals and their properties are to be placed in the service of the community. Sometimes, Islam persuades individuals to make sacrifices in this respect. Allah says what means :

"Surely Allan has bought from the believers their persons and their property - theirs (in return) is the Garden. They fight in Allah's way, so they slay and are slain. It is a promise which is binding on Him in The Torah and The Gospel and The Quran. And who is more truthful to his promise than Allah? Rejoice therefore m your bargain which you have made. And that is the mighty achievement. (The Holy Quran).

In case persuasion does not work, Islam gives it the shape of an order. The Holy Quran says what means:

" And spend in the way of Allah and cast not yourselves to perdition with your own hands and do good (to others). Surely Allah loves the doers of good. (The Holy Quran)

(b) Function which are of general utility are to be exercised by the community. They have to be controlled by the community through its rulers, as a means of giving everyone an equitable share in them. Allah says what means :

He it is Who sends down water from the clouds for you; it gives drink, and by it (grow) the trees on which you feed. And He it is Who made the sea subservient that you may eat fresh fish from it and bring forth from it ornaments which you wear. And thou seest the ships cleaving through it, so that you seek of His bounty and that you may give thanks He it is Who made the earth subservient to you, so go about in the spacious sides thereof, and eat of His sustenance. And to Him is the rising (after death). Allah is He Who made subservient to you the sea that the ships may glide therein by His command, and that you may seek of His grace, and that you may give thanks. And He has made subservient to you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, all from Himself. Surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect. (The Holy Quran)


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